Replace integer arithmetic with more complex expressions. For example, the following identities can be used to encode integer addition:
x + y = x - ¬ y - 1 = (x ⊕ y) + 2·(x ∧ y) = (x ∨ y) + (x ∧ y) = 2·(x ∨ y) - (x ⊕ y)
For example, Tigress might replace
z = x + y + w
z = (((x ^ y) + ((x & y) << 1)) | w) + (((x ^ y) + ((x & y) << 1)) & w);
|--Transform||EncodeArithmetic||Replace integer arithmetic with more complex expressions.|
|--EncodeArithmeticKinds||integer|| Specify the types to encode. Currently, only integer is available. Default=integer.
|--EncodeArithmeticMaxLevel||INTSPEC||How deep to recurse into expressions. Default=100.|
|--EncodeArithmeticMaxTransforms||INTSPEC||How many transformations to perform on each expression. Default=100.|
|--EncodeArithmeticDumpFileName||string||Name of Json file onto which we dump transformed expression. The actual file will be function-name_number_fileName.json. From version 3.3.2. Default=100.|
For each operator, there are many possible encodings, and at transformation time, these are selected from randomly.
There have been many recent papers on attacking MBA expressions. To facilitate such attacks you can dump all the transformed expressions onto a Json file for further processing. Simply set --EncodeArithmeticDumpFileName=filename.json.
Currently, the identities are taken from the book Hacker's Delight.